Glossary of Terms
These definitions were adapted from a number of sources as indicated by the number in parentheses.
Adaptive Re-Use: A use for a structure or landscape other than its originally intended use, normally entailing some modification of the structure or landscape. (3)
Affordable Space: Affordable dwelling or working units available at below market rates. In general, affordable space typically refers to rental housing that is within the financial means of people in the lower income ranges of a geographical area. The existence of affordable space can be the product of government regulation or the creation of a public good by the private sector. The need for affordable space is typically attributed to high demand for space, which drives up the cost of renting and/or owning, particularly when coupled with non-traditional employment and income patterns. (3)
Art: The expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, which may come in various ephemeral and permanent forms and as a tangible product and/or process including the visual arts, music, dance, literature, design, theater, musical theater, opera, folk and traditional arts, and media arts including animation and digital art. The 'arts' refers to subjects of study primarily concerned with the processes and products of human creativity and social life. (Adapted from the Oxford English Dictionary and the NEA)
Art Gallery: A commercial establishment that engages in the sale, loan, and/or display of paintings, sculpture, photography, video art, or other works of art. An art gallery does not include uses such as a library, museum, or non-commercial gallery that may also display paintings, sculpture, video art, or other works of art. (1)
Art-washing: The use of art and the presence of artists and creative workers to add value to commercial development and make redevelopment more palatable to residents. (11)
Artist Certification: A municipality can require that all artist units allowed under any special zoning have a restriction put on the deed that only allows artists, approved by a certification process, to live and work in certain units allowed under the zoning. (3)
Arts Entrepreneurship: Artists and cultural producers developing revenue streams and businesses through showcasing, marketing, and selling their art or creative services. Related terms: creative economy, creative industries, creative enterprises.
Art in Public Places:It is useful to distinguish art in public places -- art simply placed in a public setting -- from "public art," a practice that thoughtfully and effectively considers the context for art in public. (6) Also, see definition for Public Art.
Artist-in-Residence: A method of engagement in which artists spend time with students (in schools) or residents (in communities) developing projects or producing artistic activities or events. Today there are many variations of this practice, including artists working alongside city staff to develop public art strategies and procedures. (6)
Artist Registry: A nonjuried listing of both artists who create public art, and images of their artwork. (6)
Artist Space Development (ASD): Spaces for artists to live and/or work that are affordable, constructed to meet the special needs of their medium or craft, designed to create or enhance artists communities, and stimulate the production of innovative art work (e.g. live/work space, studios, affordable housing for artists, and artist-run multipurpose spaces). (3)
Artist Studio - General: A studio for artist activities, such as painting, sculpture, photography, or video art, with little to no outside impacts. (1)
Artist Studio - Artisan Industrial: A studio for artisan-related crafts, which are more intensive uses, such as metalworking, glassblowing, furniture making, pottery, leathercraft, and related items. (1)
Arts Studio - Commercial: A commercial establishment where an art, type of exercise, or activity is taught, practiced, or studied, such as dance, martial arts, photography, music, painting, gymnastics, or yoga. An Arts Studio? Commercial may have performance-space related to the classes taught on-site. (1)
Beautification: Efforts made to improve the appearance of the built environment through policy, grant programs (e.g. storefront improvement programs), design, infrastructure upgrades (e.g. sidewalk improvements, street tree planting), public art, etc. Related terms: revitalization, tactical urbanism, art-washing
Biennial: A major contemporary art festival, usually featuring international artists, presented every two years. Several Biennials held around the world feature public art, outdoor installations, or new media projects. Among the better known are Venice, Liverpool, Shanghai, and New Orleans. (6)
Brownfields: Abandoned, idled or under-utilized industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination, as identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (3)
Built Environment: This is a broad term to describe the world created by humans, as opposed to nature. It most often pertains to the constructed or altered natural features of our daily lives, such as buildings, plazas, roadways, bridges, groomed parkland, rain gardens and other altered or pre-designed areas for everyday activity. (6)
Business Improvement District (BID): A defined area within which businesses pay an additional tax or fee in order to fund improvements within the district's boundaries. BIDs provide services(i.e. streets, providing security, making capital improvements, marketing the area, etc.) which are supplemental to those already provided by the municipality. (3)
Capital - Creative/Cultural: Skills, knowledge, and human intellectual achievement. (3)
Capital - Economic: Money or other investments and assets that can be converted into cash (e.g. real estate value or rent). Economic capital should not be confused with economic good, a product or service that can secure a price when sold. (3)
Capital Flow: The movement of investments/wealth/assets in and out of a nation, region, or locality. (3)
Capital - Political: The power and resources created through activities that build relationships (e.g. persuasion). (3)
Capital - Social: The resources created by human interaction and connection, including trust, mutual understanding, and shared values. (3)
Commission: A commissioned work of art usually refers to any artwork created at the request of an entity?a public agency, corporation or individual?in which the funds to design and produce the art are provided by that entity (or an affiliated agency). Most permanent public artworks in the US have been commissioned. (6)
Community Development: Community development activities buildstronger and more resilient communities through an ongoing process ofidentifying and addressing needs, assets, and priority investments. Community development activities may support infrastructure, economic development projects, installation of public facilities, community centers, housing rehabilitation, public services, clearance/acquisition, microenterprise assistance, code enforcement, homeowner assistance, public health, and many other identified needs. (9)
Community Development Corporations (CDCs): CDCs engage local residents and businesses to work together to undertake community development programs, projects and activities, which develop and improve urban, rural and suburban communities in sustainable ways that create and expand economic opportunities for low- and moderate-income people. CDCs improve communities through real estate development, small business development, asset building, community leadership identification and resident engagement. CDCs are a critical component of lasting and durable community change founded upon the principal that a community's residents can come together to effect change and to help transform their own neighborhood together. (8)
Creative Economy: The creative economy consists of three overlapping domains -- workers in arts occupations, creative industries, and places. Each domain is populated by a unique set of actors and institutions.
Complete Streets: Roadways that are safe, comfortable, and accessible for everyone, regardless of age, ability, income, or how they choose to travel.
Community Art: A wide variety of activities are covered by this term, including neighborhood-generated murals, artists-in-residence, arts in the schools, and process-oriented art engaging the community at large. Artists working in and with the community dates back to the 1960s. (6)
Community Engagement: The process of using multiple strategies to provide opportunities for all to be informed and to participate in public decision-making. Related terms: Inform, Engage, Empower
Computer-Aided Design (CAD): Many artists now take advantage of digital technologies that aid in the visualization and design of public art. With Photoshop and other software, artists have found it easier to present complex designs, in scale with their surroundings (actual or proposed). (6)
Creative Economy: The sector that produces and distributes cultural goods, services, and intellectual property. Related terms: arts entrepreneurship, creative industries, cultural enterprise. (3)
Creative Placemaking: Activity in which ?partners from public, private, nonprofit, and community sectors strategically shape the physical and social character of a neighborhood, town, city, or region around arts and cultural activities (NEA.)? The following terms used in the context of Creative Placemaking refer to strategies that seek to build up the foundations that already exist in community: (3)
- Placekeeping: honoring the arts and culture that is already going on. Lifting it up through strategic programming.
- Placeholding: Holding space in an inclusive way, for people to engage in arts and culture activities that equitably engage and benefit all stakeholders.
Culture: The customs, arts, social institutions, and other manifestations of human intellectual achievements of a particular nation, people, or other social group. Culture can also refer to attitudes, behaviors, and norms characteristic of a place as influences by the people who, live, work, play, and pass through a place. (Adapted from the Oxford English Dictionary)
Cultural Assessment: Cultural assessment helps communities understand the local cultural ecology, identify what is needed to strengthen the management of culture resources and how they can be leveraged to address community priorities, inform planning and decision-making, and target investment. (2)
Cultural Enterprises: Arts-, culture-, and heritage-centric businesses or non-profits. (3)
Cultural Facility: A facility open to the public that provides cultural services and facilities including, but not limited to, museums, cultural centers, historical societies, and libraries operated by a public, private, or nonprofit organization. In Massachusetts, a cultural facility is specifically defined as a building, structure or site that is, or will be, owned, leased or otherwise used by one or more cultural organizations and that is accessible to the public and exempt from income taxation pursuant to section 501(c)3 of the Internal Revenue Code. The term cultural facility may include, but shall not be limited to, museums, historical sites, zoos, aquariums, nature or science centers, theaters, concert halls, exhibition spaces, classrooms and auditoriums suitable for presentation of performing or visual arts. Municipally owned buildings, structures or sites must be a minimum of 50,000 square feet in size, of which at least 50 per cent is used as a cultural facility to qualify. Public or private institutions of higher education may qualify if they demonstrate that their cultural facility provides service and open access to the community and the general public outside of the regular educational mission of the public or private institute of higher education. (1, 3)
Cultural Inventory: A process to clearly understand what a community's cultural assets are, who the creative workforce is, and what its needs are. (3)
Creative Industries: A set of service enterprises that engage in economic activities originating in individual skill, creativity, and talent that have the potential for wealth and job creation. (3)
Cultural Mapping: A systematic approach to identifying, recording and classifying a community's cultural resources. It involves a process of collecting, analyzing and synthesizing information in order to describe and visualize the cultural resources in terms of issues such as links to other civic resources (e.g. transportation, green infrastructure, public gathering spaces), patterns of usage, and unique character and identity of a given community. (2)
Cultural Organization: Defined in Massachusetts as a nonprofit, public or private, civic educational or professional organization or educational foundation which is primarily concerned with the arts, humanities, interpretive sciences or local arts and which is exempt from income taxation pursuant to section 501(c)3 of the Internal Revenue Code. Public or private institutions of higher education may qualify if they demonstrate that their cultural organization provides service and open access to the community and the general public outside of the regular educational mission of the public or private institute of higher education. (3)
Cultural Planning: A government-led process for identifying and leveraging a community?s cultural resources, strengthening the management of those resources, and integrating cultural resources across all facets of local government planning and decision making. Cultural planning is part of an integrated, place-based approach to planning and development that takes into account four pillars of sustainability: economic prosperity, social equity, environmental responsibility and cultural vitality. Cultural Plans vary in scope depending on the size and circumstances of the community. Please see the section on Cultural Planning for an overview of the different types of cultural plans. (2)
Cultural Resource: An aspect of a cultural system that is valued by or significantly representative of a culture or that contains significant information about a culture. A cultural resource may be a tangible entity or a cultural practice. (3)
Cultural Tourism: An industry subsector that caters to people interested in learning more about the arts and culture of a region, country, or people. Tourists can be local or from more distant locations, depending upon the type of demand for the destination. Heritage tourism is a related term. (3)
Design Team: A trend emerged in the 1970s for artists and architects to collaborate on public improvement projects in which public art was an integral component. More artists today are recognized as valuable design team members, rather than decorators brought in late in the process.(6)
Displacement: A change in neighborhood demographics in which long-time residents are compelled to leave due to rising housing costs (e.g. prices, rents, and property taxes) and a decline in availability of affordable goods and services due to redevelopment and/or an influx of new residents with advantages that may include age, income, education, or access to family resources. This is often an unintended consequence of Creative Placemaking. The possibility of displacement should be an integral part of planning for community engagement, implementation, and oversight.
Economic Opportunity Area (EOA): An area or several areas within a designated Economic Target Area of particular need and priority for economic development. These areas are selected by the individual communities, and must meet one of four Massachusetts General Law (MGL) statutory criteria for designation. (3)
Ephemera Programming: Events, marketplaces, celebrations, etc. that exist for a short period of time, from a few hours to a few days. (3)
Gentrification: Refers to a particular type of neighborhood change defined by an increase in housing costs and an influx of new, higher-income residents; often coincides with lower-income residents moving out of a neighborhood due to rising housing costs. This is often an unintended consequence of Creative Placemaking. The possibility of gentrification should be an integral part of planning for community engagement, implementation, and oversight.
Heritage: A legacy, inheritance, tradition, or birthright passed on from previous generations. In legal terms, it denotes property ? especially land ? that devolves by right of inheritance. (Merriam-Webster and Dictionary.com)
Historic Preservation: The practice of safeguarding significant old buildings and neighborhoods from destruction or encroaching contemporary development in order to preserve community identity, stability and orientation. Related terms: historic district, historic property, national heritage areas, national historic landmark, national register of historic places, national trust for historic preservation. (3)
Invitational Competition: A process that provides the opportunity for submission of proposals for a project to selected artists who are invited to apply. (6)
Live Entertainment: Any one or more of any of the following that is performed live by one or more persons, whether or not done for compensation and whether or not admission is charged: musical act, including karaoke, theatrical act, including stand-up comedy, play, revue, dance, magic act, disc jockey, or similar activity. Live entertainment is conducted in conjunction with another use, such as a restaurant or bar, where such other use is open for business even when there are no performances scheduled and/or maintains hours of operation distinct from times of scheduled performances. Live entertainment does not include any form of entertainment related to an adult use or sexually-oriented business. (1)
Live Performance Venue: A facility for the presentation of live performances, including musical acts, theatrical plays or acts, including stand-up comedy and magic, dance clubs, and disc jockey performances using vinyl records, compact discs, computers, or digital music players. A live performance venue is only open to the public when a live performance is scheduled and does not include any form of entertainment related to an adult use or sexually-oriented business. (1)
Live/Work Dwelling: A structure combining a dwelling unit with a non-residential use permitted in the zoning district in which the structure is located that is principally used by one or more of the residents. A live/work dwelling may also include the combination of a dwelling unit with arts-related activities, such as painting, photography, sculpture, music, and film, principally used by one or more of the residents. Live/work dwellings are subject to the standards for the individual uses contained within the ordinance. (1)
Main Street Program: A preservation-based economic development movement led out by the National Main Street Center that enables communities to revitalize downtown and neighborhood business districts by leveraging local assets - from historic, cultural, and architectural resources to local enterprises and community pride. (3)
Maquette: A scale model of a proposed project, often used to help selection panels visualize the final product. More recently, computer-aided design (CAD) is utilized more frequently to adequately visualize proposed projects. (6)
Mixed-Use: The practice of having more than one type of use in a structure or area. In urban planning terms, this means a combination of residential, commercial, office, institutional, industrial and/or other uses. In artist space development terms, this means a combination of any or all of the following uses: living, working, presentation, commerce, etc. (3)
Multiplier Effect: The expansion of social and/or economic capital by increasing investment in organizations and enterprises. (3)
Movie Studio: Facilities for the production of motion pictures and film, including stages, exterior sets, film laboratories, sound recording facilities, construction, repair and storage facilities, caretaker and temporary housing, related commercial vehicles, and accessory fabrication activities. (1)
National Endowment for the Arts: Established by Congress in 1965, the NEA is the independent federal agency whose funding and support gives Americans the opportunity to participate in the arts, exercise their imaginations, and develop their creative capacities. Through partnerships with state arts agencies, local leaders, other federal agencies, and the philanthropic sector, the NEA supports arts learning, affirms and celebrates America?s rich and diverse cultural heritage, and extends its work to promote equal access to the arts in every community across America. (Source: www.arts.gov/about-nea)
National Heritage Areas: A site designated by the United States and intended to encourage historic preservation of the area and an appreciation of the history and heritage of the site. (3,4)
National Historic Landmark: A district, site, building, structure, or object of national historical significance, designated by the Secretary of the Interior under authority of the Historic Sites Act of 1935 and entered in the National Register of Historic Places. (3,4)
National Register of Historic Places: The comprehensive list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects of national, regional, state, and local significance in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture kept by the National Park Service (NPS) under authority of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. (3,4)
National Trust for Historic Preservation: A member-supported organization that was founded to support preservation of historic buildings and neighborhoods through a range of programs and activities, The National Trust for Historic Preservation provides leadership, education and advocacy to save America's diverse historic places and revitalize our communities. (3, 5)
New Media: A general term used to describe new directions in art utilizing technology, video, projection computers, the Internet, geo-locational devices, and other recently developed tools and technology, typically of an electronic nature. New media public art often involves interactive technology and audience-activated artwork. (6)
Open Competition: A process in which a public art opportunity is promoted broadly within a region or nationally. A selection process is used to determine an artist to commission. This method can employ an RFP or RFQ process, however RFPs are no longer considered ethical by most artists. (6)
Percent-for-Art: Percent-for-art programs allocate a small portion of capital construction or renovation budgets (usually one percent) for the purchase, commissioning, and installation of artworks. Percent for art programs are one effective way for states and territories to foster access to the arts and increase the aesthetic value of state-owned public buildings and public places. In the US there are more than 350 percent for art programs. Percent-for-art was first utilized in Philadelphia in 1959. Governance and management systems vary. (6) (10)
Performance Art: Performance art draws from multiple artistic disciplines such as painting, sculpture, music, dance, theater, cinema, and poetry. Artists engaged in performance art today often address social or political issues utilizing public spaces or conventional venues. (6)
Permitting and Licensing: Legal processes used to ensure that business and resident activities adhere to requirements determined at the local or state level. Examples: liquor licenses, parking permits, event permits, business permits, etc.
Planning: Planning enables civic leaders, businesses, and citizens to play a meaningful role in creating communities that enrich people's lives. Good planning helps create communities that offer better choices for where and how people live. Planning helps communities to envision their future. It helps them find the right balance of new development and essential services, environmental protection, and innovative change. (American Planning Association, 2016)
Plop Art: A term coined in the 70s by artist James Wines -- often used in a derogatory manner -- to describe artwork created independently and without consideration for the environment in which it is sited. (6)
Pop-Up: A temporary artistic endeavor developed to enliven a space and generate interest in an area. .
Public Art: Public art is a multifaceted field of inquiry; it encompasses a wide variety of creative expressions in the public realm. It encompasses works of art in any media that have been planned and executed with the specific intention of being sited or staged in the physical public domain, usually outside and accessible to all. Public art can be temporary or permanent. For some communities public art is seen as a means of enhancing or personalizing otherwise impersonal spaces. For others, it's a way to activate civic dialogue, or provide a vehicle for communities to express their unique identity. (3, 6) Also, see definition for Art in Public Places.
- Site specific: works of art or projects that take into account, interface with, or are otherwise informed by the surrounding environment. This includes the physical limitations of a site, weather conditions, history, audience demographics and usage, lighting and many other aspects. (6)
- Site responsive: works of art or projects that engage directly with the surrounding environment. The relationship between artistic expression and place evolves over time with regards to factors including social climate, cultural context, natural elements, time of day, season, and surrounding activities.
- Place-based: art that is designed for a specific context, generally responding to physical place
Public Art Program: Public art programs are charged with administering the development and management of public art in their communities. The methods used to build a public art program include -- but are not limited to -- commissioning artwork for permanent display, commissioning artwork for temporary installation, purchasing existing artwork for permanent or temporary display, placing artists on project design teams, and creating artist-in-residence opportunities. In addition to creating new work, public art programs often are charged with maintaining their public art collection, developing educational programming, creating public art resources including printed materials and websites, seeking out partnerships and opportunities with public and private organizations, and acting as a source for public art information. (6) (10)
Public Art Ordinance: A public art ordinance is the legislation establishing a public art program within a unit of government. Generally, a public art ordinance establishes the financial mechanism that funds the public art program, identifies the unit of government or private contractor that will manage the public art program, and establishes a basis for the development of public art policies and/or guidelines. (6)
Public Safety: In Massachusetts, the Executive Office of Public Safety encompasses a broad range of concerns related to protecting residents from harms related to crime; emergency medical response, public health, and medical services; building and infrastructure conditions; commercial activities and business practices; telecommunications; terrorism and threats to national security; and natural disasters.
Request for Proposal (RFP) [in the context of Public Art]: A term used for competitive projects, in which applicants must submit a description of their idea for consideration. This process is no longer considered ethical by most professionals in the public art field as it requires significant work performed on behalf of the project without any pay. (6)
Request for Qualification (RFQ) [in the context of Public Art]: This process, more commonly accepted than RFPs, involves the submission of work samples, resumes and letters of interest to determine a small group of finalists. Once finalists are selected, they are usually paid to develop proposals, followed by the selection of an artist or team to be commissioned. (6)
Research and Development (R&D) [in the context of Public Art]: Research is usually required as a preliminary phase of a public art project. Information about the site and its audience is collected, historical data is studied, ideas are formulated and options are analyzed with regard to cost, dimensions, materials and time involved. (6)
Recording and Rehearsal Studio: A facility for sound recording and mixing and/or rehearsal space. (1)
Revitalization: Efforts to transform urban areas to reverse deterioration of the physical environment and increase access to services and amenities such as reliable transit, usable open space and high quality food, education and employment.
Site-Specific Art: This term refers to works of art or projects that take into account, interface with, or are otherwise informed by the surrounding environment. This includes the physical limitations of a site, weather conditions, history, audience demographics and usage, lighting and many other aspects. (6)
SMART Goals: Goals designed to be Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-based, e.g. "Increase number of first-time visitors by 15% in the next quarter." (3)
Smart Growth: Smart growth means building urban, suburban and rural communities with compact walkable urban centers that are transit-oriented, walkable, bicycle-friendly, and near amenities and facilities that include schools, complete streets, and mixed-use development providing a range of housing choices, job choices, and cultural resources. (7)
Social Capital: The resources created by human interaction and connection, including trust, mutual understanding, and shared values. (3)
Social Practice Art: Social practice is an art medium that focuses on social engagement, inviting collaboration with individuals, communities, and institutions in the creation of participatory art.
Stakeholder: An entity or individual in the public or private sectors who may stand to benefit or be impacted by an activity or policy, which may or may not be directly involved in the decision-making process pertaining to that activity or policy.
Sustainable Tourism: The primary concern of sustainable tourism is to support balance within the ecological environment and minimize the impact upon it by mass-market tourism. The use of this term is evolving as it is also used to describe the impact of mass-tourism on cultural and historic resources. (3)
Sweat-Equity: The increase in property value or the equity (investment) created by the purchaser or owner of a property or business through manual, unpaid labor and improvement. (3)
SWOT Analysis: A structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in a project, business venture, or initiative. (3)
Tactical Urbanism: The approach of implementing short-term, low-cost, and scalable demonstration projects that test alternatives to infrastructure, design, and uses in the public realm. Related terms: beautification, pop-up, urbanism
Tax Increment Financing: A tool that allows municipalities to provide flexible targeted incentives to stimulate job-creating development. (3)
Temporary Open Air Market: A temporary outdoor public marketplace where goods are sold, such as flea markets, arts and crafts fairs, and art fairs. (1)
Temporary Outdoor Entertainment Events: A temporary live entertainment event, such as the performance of live music, revue, or play within an outdoor space. (1)
Temporary Storefront Gallery: A temporary gallery within storefront windows where artwork is displayed to the public. (1)
Transit-Oriented Development: Transit-oriented development, or TOD, is a type of community development that includes a mixture of housing, office, retail and/or other commercial development and amenities integrated into a walkable neighborhood and located within a half-mile of quality public transportation. The concept of equitable TOD prioritizes investments that support the production and preservation of affordable housing near transit; provides other tranist-accessible community services such as schools, health clinics, and food stores; and enhances access for transit-dependent populations through connecting bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Equitable TOD is about creating equal opportunities for people of all incomes to capture the benefits of transit oriented locations. (Source: http://www.ctod.org/index.php)
Walkability: The extent to which the built environment is friendly to the presence of people living, shopping, visiting, enjoying or spending time in an area. Factors influencing walkability include the presence or absence and quality of footpaths, sidewalks or other pedestrian right-of-ways, traffic and road conditions, land use patterns, building accessibility, and safety. (3)
Web-based Art: As more people have access to the Internet, artists are drawn to create artworks and virtual environments for the online audience. The web, it can be argued, is a public space, accessible to almost everyone. (6)
Zoning - Zoning is a system of land use regulation used by municipalities and counties that separates different uses from each other and regulates the height, lot coverage, density, and uses permitted in a defined geographic area.
(1) Arts and Culture Definitions. Arts and Culture Planning: A Toolkit for Communities (2013). Chicago Metropolitan Area for Planning. Source: http://www.cmap.illinois.gov/documents/10180/76006/FY14-0006+ARTS+AND+CULTURE+TOOLKIT+lowres.pdf/f276849a-f363-44d4-89e1-8c1f2b11332f
(2) Definitions and Glossary of Terms. Municipal Cultural Planning: a Toolkit for Ontario Municipalities (2011). Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Culture. Source: http://www.ontariomcp.ca/toolkits/MunicipalCulturalPlanning_AToolkitForOntarioMunicipalities_digital.pdf
(3) Glossary of Terms - Cultural Districts. Massachusetts Cultural Council website (Accessed January 2016.) Source: http://www.massculturalcouncil.org/services/cultural_districts_glossary.asp
(4) National Park Service website. Source: http://www.nps.gov/
(5) National Trust for Historic Preservation website. Source: http://www.preservationnation.org/
(6) Forecast Public Art Toolkit Glossary of Terms. Source: http://forecastpublicart.org/toolkit/glossary.html
(7) What is "smart growth?" Smart Growth America website (Accessed January 2016.) Source: http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/what-is-smart-growth
(8) CDC Theory of Change. Massachusetts Association of Community Development Corporations (Accessed June 2016.) Source: https://macdc.org/node/91#What%20are%20CDCs?
(9) Community Development. United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (Accessed June 2016.) Source: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/communitydevelopment
(10) National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. State Public Art Programs (Accessed June 2016.) Source: http://www.nasaa-arts.org/Research/Key-Topics/Public-Art/index.php